Bream, Black or porgy or seabream
Capture method — Demersal otter trawl
Capture area — North East Atlantic (FAO 27)
Stock area — English Channel
Stock detail — All areas except Sussex and Cornwall IFCA districts
The Black Seabream were was once rare in British waters, but their population off Plymouth has increased with rising sea temperatures over the past century. The English Channel expanded in the late 1970s and early 1980s and Black Seabream were heavily exploited.
Black Seabream are a data-limited species and the stock status is unknown. They are a vulnerable species because of a few reasons: firstly, they aggregate during their breeding season (making them easier to catch). Secondly, because they hatch as females and turn into males at sexual maturity - the fishery previously targeted larger fish (predominately males) which impacted reproduction and repopulation. Thirdly, they rely of very particular habitats (chalk beds with veneers or various sediments). To see just how passionately Black seabream males protect their young, see http://www.mattdoggett.com/the-black-bream-project/.
Black Seabream are caught in both commercial and recreational fisheries. They are targeted small inshore boats using fixed nets when they congregate in inshore shallow inshore hard-ground areas (when they are feeding before breeding). Trawlers (primarily pair trawlers) exploit bream when bream aggregate in their breeding grounds. Bream are also exploited by netters and commercial and recreational anglers. After breeding, bream tend to go offshore, but the remaining breams are usually targeted by anglers.
The majority of the Black Seabream UK catch occurs in the English Channel (opposed to North Sea) and particularly in the Eastern side of the English Channel (area 7d). Outside the 6 nautical mile limit, a significant proportion of bream are harvested by French vessels stocks: around 87% of the total Black Seabream landings in 2000 were by French fishing vessels. There is a general lack of management to protect the species, though Sussex IFCA have implemented measures to protect the species, such as Marine Protected Areas.
A member of a group of fish known as Sparidae, the black bream is one of two species commonly found in northern European seas. Found off south-west Britain and east Ireland in the English Channel and the Irish Sea. Spawning occurs in April and May in a number of inshore waters, such as the English Channel. Since black bream aggregate to spawn in predictable times and locations, the species can be vulnerable to high pressure from anglers. They are called black bream because they turn a jet black colour when they are courting. Black seabream are unusual in that they are sequential hermaphrodites (undergoing a sex change during their lives), maturing as females at a length of 23cm, then as males at around 30cm. All fish over 40cm are males. The maximum reported age, length and weight are 15 years, 60cm and 1.2kg respectively. They are found over seagrass beds and rocky and sandy bottoms between about 5m to 300m. Black bream lay eggs in a nest that the male has excavated on sand with its tail. The larger the female, the more fecund or more eggs she lays, e.g. a female of 18.5cm will lay around 31,000 eggs compared to a female of 33.5cm which lays around to 554,000 eggs. Gregarious, sometimes in large schools but the males can also be very aggressive when they are protecting the nests. Omnivorous, feeding on seaweeds and small invertebrates, especially crustaceans. Likely predators on black bream eggs are clawed crustaceans. Adult black bream have few predators, however a few are likely to be taken by seabirds and marine mammals.
Criterion score: 0.75 info
There have been no stock assessments for Black Seabream and their abundance is unknown. An abundance index - produced using catch rates from a beam trawl survey in the Eastern English Channel - has shown fluctuations in recent years, after a period of relative stability. However, recent local fishers from the Southern IFCA have raised concerns regarding the size, number of Black Seabream from competitions in recent years.
It is unknown if fishing mortality are at appropriate levels but there is no evidence to suggest that they are overfished. Catch rates UK fleets have ranged between 182 and 377 t since 2000, with no overall trend.
The FishBase vulnerability score for Black Seabream is 52 out of 100.
Criterion score: 0.75 info
There is currently very little management to protect Black Seabream in European waters. They are not managed under a Total Allowable Catch or minimum landing size. The EU mandates that any towed gear used to catch seabream must have a mesh size >80mm and sea bream must form a minimum of 70% of the catch. For static/fixed gear used to catch sea bream, the minimum mesh size is 120mm. These measure are designed to protect juvenile seabream.
Black Seabream are vulnerable to overexploitation because they are change sex from female to male during their lives, they aggregate spawning and have important habitat requirements. These attributes both make the species difficult to manage effectively: the males are often over exploited because females receive protection from recreational and commercial fisheries. Further protection, such as harvest windows are required to reduce pressure on males. Black Seabream is a highly valued recreational sport fish: recreational catch are estimated to represent around 25% of the total annual catch and management must cover commercial and recreational fisheries.
Little information is collected on Black Seabream: landings for sea breams are not identified to species level and data accuracy is questionable. However, research is conducted for other species that co-occur in Black Seabream catches. French beam trawl studies and tagging studies have collected data on black seabream abundance.
Data gaps include the stock size and structure, recruitment sources, spawning and nursery ground areas. Further research is needed to map Black Seabream nests, which will indicate the numbers of mating pairs and eligible spawning sites.
Surveillance and enforcement in Divisions 7 d and e includes VMS (for vessels over 12 m overall length), the UK under 10 m collect landings data voluntarily, patrols by vessels and aerial patrols, vessel and logbook inspections against sales documents. Fishing effort is limited by kW-days depending on gear, mesh size and area. The fishery is also regulated under a licensing scheme.
Criterion score: 0.5 info
In the bottom trawl fishery, other species that may be caught with Black Seabream include Atlantic cod, wrasse, and skates and rays. There is limited information available for wrasse in the English Channel. There is a lack of management for the species, however, management is increasing in IFCA areas. Discarding has not been quantified.
Black seabream are usually found over sandy, mixed and rough ground. Black Seabream are commonly targeted by trawls (including pair trawls and otter trawls) when they move to their breeding grounds. In Sussex IFCA, bottom trawling is shown to occur across a number of reserves. Therefore, whilst some measures and policies are in place to protect vulnerable habitats, there is little protection of other habitats. However, around 80% of the Black Seabream nesting sites within the Southern IFCA are located within a Marine Protected Area and are protected from bottom towed fishing gear. However, this may not effectively manage bream caught via netting.
Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.Basa, Tra, Catfish or Vietnamese River Cobbler
Cod, Atlantic Cod
Cod, Pacific Cod
Monkfish, Anglerfish, White
Pollock, Alaska, Walleye
Spurdog, Spiny Dogfish, Dogfish, Rock Salmon or Flake
References"FishBase. 2016. Black seabream Spondyliosoma cantharus. Available at: http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/SpeciesSummary.php?ID=1356&AT=black+seabream
ASCOBANS. 2017. Cetacean Bycatch Monitoring and Mitigation Under EC Regulation 812/2004 in the Northeast Atlantic, North Sea and Baltic Sea - Interim Report Cetacean. 23rd ASCOBANS Advisory Committee Meeting: Le Conquet, 5 - 7 September 2017. Available at: http://www.ascobans.org/sites/default/files/document/AC23_Inf._6.1.c_Interim%20Report%20on%20Bycatch%20and%20Mitigation_WDC.pdf.
Southern IFCA. 2014. Black Bream Status Report. Available at: https://secure.toolkitfiles.co.uk/clients/25364/sitedata/files/Black_Bream_Report.pdf
British Sea Fishing. 2017. Bream Species. Available at: http://britishseafishing.co.uk/bream-species/
Pinder, A.C., Velterop, R., Cooke, S.J., Britton, J.R., 2017. Consequences of catch-and-release angling for black bream Spondyliosoma cantharus, during the parental care period: implications for management, ICES Journal of Marine Science, Volume 74, Issue 1, pp 254-262, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsw151.
Dapling, T., Tebb, A., Lawes, E., Nelson, K., Goodhew, B. 2016. Monitoring the Movements of the Black Sea Bream (Spondyliosoma cantharus, L.) utilising Kingmere Marine Conservation Zone as a Spawning Site. Available at: https://secure.toolkitfiles.co.uk/clients/34087/sitedata/files/MPAs/KNMR_Bream-Tagging-Poster.pdf.
Seafish. 2018. Gear Database. Gill nets. Available at: http://www.seafish.org/geardb/gear/gill-nets/ [Accessed 07.08.18].
Pawson, M.G. 1995. Biogeographical indentification of English Channel fish and shellfish stocks. Fish Res. Tech. Rep., MAFF Direct. Fish Res., Lowestoft 1995, (99): 72pp
Scientific, Technical, and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF). 2013. 2008-2012 EU Fleet Landings Data by Species. European Commission, Scientific, Technical, and Economic Committee for Fisheries. http://stecf.jrc.ec.europa.eu/index.html
Peacock, Sam. 2012. Fishery By-Product Surveillance report. IFFO Global Standard for responsible supply of fishmeal and fish oil. Global Trust Certification Ltd, Quayside Business Centre, Dundalk, Co. Louth, Ireland. 2012. Issue No; 3.
Sussex IFCA. 2013. Black Bream (Spondylisoma cantharus). Sussex Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authority
Sussex IFCA. 2013. Compliance and Enforcement. Sussex Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authority
Sussex IFCA. 2013. Trawling Exclusion Byelaw. Sussex Inshore Fisheries Conservation Authority
Sussex IFCA. 2013. Fishing Instruments Byelaw. Sussex Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authority.
ICES. 2018. Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in divisions 4.b-c, 7.a, and 7.d-h (central and southern North Sea, Irish Sea, English Channel, Bristol Channel, and Celtic Sea). Version 2: 2 July 2018. Available at: http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2018/2018/bss.27.4bc7ad-h.pdf.
ICES. 2018. Cod (Gadus morhua) in divisions 7.a-k (western English Channel and southern Celtic Seas): Published 29 June 2018. Available at: http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2018/2018/cod.27.7e-k.pdf
Save Our Seabass. 2018. Response to Sussex IFCA review of Nearshore Trawling and Netting Management. Available at: http://www.saveourseabass.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/SOSB_Response_to_SxIFCA_Netting___Trawling_18_June_2018.pdf"